2

As the weather warms up, I’m itching to start growing again and it’s tempting to start as soon as possible but there are good reasons for sowing a bit later in the year. I’m going to focus on sowing under cover, as this is the method I use for the majority of my annual flower seed. The other option is direct sowing where you sow straight into the soil outside but you must wait for the soil to warm up for this.

Sowing under cover means that you gain a head-start and will get earlier flowers. You don't need a greenhouse or potting shed for this. I use my windowsills and using 2 windowsills, I have space for all the annuals that I grow. By having my seedlings in the house, I can keep an eye on them so that I don't forget to water them and turn the pots each day. You can also protect your seedlings from being munched by slugs and other pests, until they are larger - larger plants are more able to withstand a bit of nibbling.

Sowing flower seeds
Sowing annual flower seeds

Common questions

Q. When should I sow my annual flower seed? - (every packet seems to have slightly different timings!)

A. When it comes to sowing, day-length is more important than warmth. If you sow too early, your seedlings are likely to become leggy from straining for the light by the time you plant them out.

The first thing to do is to split the annuals you want to grow into hardy* and half-hardy** types to simplify things. Then, sow all the hardy seed from early - mid March and all the half-hardy ones from early April. You can also sow at any time throughout the spring and summer so if you miss sowing in March and April, you can still have flowers this season, they’ll just appear later.

As long as there is time for them to grow and flower before the first frost, you can sow annuals at any time. I sow a 2nd batch of hardy annuals when my first batch start flowering, so that once the first batch have flowered for 2-3 months, I have plants to replace them with. Using this method, I have a continual supply of flowers from late May until the first frosts.

*Hardy annuals are just that, hardy - meaning that they’ll survive winter cold and wet and withstand a frost.

**Half-hardy annuals cannot withstand frosts and so need to be planted out after all risk of a frost has passed. This is generally mid-late May in this area, so if I sow at the beginning of April, I know that my plants will be the perfect size for planting out when the warmer weather arrives.

Sweet peas
Sweet peas

Hardy annuals can also be sown in late August - October for early flowering the following year. They go into a semi-dormant state through the winter, coming into growth again in the spring. Sweet peas, Cornflowers and Ammi all do well with this method.

Q. Do I need special seed compost?

A. Seed compost is specially formulated for growing seeds but for me, a good multi-purpose compost is less expensive and performs just as well. Trials have shown that multi-purpose can be really good and the good ones had less peat than the top rated seed compost in a recent Which? trial. Peat-free options generally performed less well but they are being improved all the time. Whichever compost you use, break up any large lumps and fill your seed trays or pots loosely to the top before firming  it down gently – the bottom of another tray/pot can be used to press it down. Leave a small gap at the top for watering.

Q. How deep do I sow the seed?

A. Seeds vary in size, generally, larger ones like sweet peas should be buried under about an inch of compost and smaller ones just need a fine sprinkling of compost over the top. Very fine ones like poppies can be left on the surface.

Cornflower
Cornflower 'Black Ball' (hardy-annual)

Q. Should I use trays or pots?

A. Seed trays can be useful for small seeds where you want to sow a lot of one type of seed. However, I find that I don't want to grow more than 3 or 4 of each type of annual in my cutting beds so to make things as simple as possible, I sow all my seed directly into square black plastic 9cm pots. This is the ideal size to house seedlings for up to 6-8 weeks, without getting root-bound, which is a good size for planting out and prevents the time-consuming need to prick them out and pot them on.

I plant 2-3 seeds per pot (or a small pinch of very tiny seeds) and pull out all but the strongest seedling once they emerge). 8 of this size pot fits nicely into a square seed tray that acts as a reservoir for water. The tray fits perfectly on to my windowsills and means the whole tray can be easily turned every day to prevent seedlings growing towards the light. I also happen to collect large numbers of this size of pot as it’s a popular size for garden perennials to be housed in when you buy them from the garden centre. At Miles Garden Design, we are left with lots of this size pot left at the end of a planting job so, for me, they are essentially free - lucky me! You may be able to get them for free on sites like Freecycle or you can buy them fairly cheaply on the internet. You can re-use them, making sure that you clean them thoroughly at the end of each year.

Vintage flowers

Q. How often should I water my seedlings?

A. Water the compost well before you sow the seeds, rather than after sowing, so that you don’t dislodge the seeds or wash off the covering of soil. Check pots daily and water sparingly with tepid tap water. Don't use water from a rain barrel as it may harbour diseases and small seedlings are vulnerable. Use a small watering can with a fine rose. Keep pots moist but not wet.

Cutting garden bed
Annual flowers

Other seed sowing tips

Labeling. Label all your individual pots or seed trays as it is very easy to lose track of what you have sown. I use sturdy multi-coloured plant labels and use a black wax pencil to mark them. At the end of the season, you can scrub off the writing with a sponge scourer and some washing up liquid and re-use them. I like using coloured ones as you can use a different colour for different plants in each tray so you can immediately see how many of each type you have. Plus, they look pretty.

Create a list, use fresh seed. Have a plan for planting up your annual cutting bed and a list, so you know exactly how many of each plant you need to sow. I generally only grow 3/4 of each type of annual and actually don’t need much seed from a packet. Spare seed can be shared with friends or stored for using the following year but do check expiry dates on packets as the germination rate does go down, the older the seed is. If you are unsure, you can perform a simple test to see if the seed is still viable.

Share

News from the Cutting Garden

Well, the school summer holidays are upon us and so this will be my final post to the website for a while. I will be turning my attention to entertaining my hyperactive 3-year-old daughter Rosie and attempting to lure my 7-year-old Ben away from his computer games.

I've been cutting flowers from the garden practically every day for the last few weeks. My early hardy annuals are producing buckets of blooms. I've been leaving quite a lot of flowers for the insects but ensuring that I always deadhead when the flowers are over to ensure that the plants keep on producing. I've had plenty of flowers so that I can have a display in almost every room of the house and still had some spare to create some lovely little jam jar posies as presents for teachers at the end of term.

Jam jar posies make excellent and indiv
Jam jar posies make excellent and individual presents for teachers at the end of term

Mysterious plant deaths

I've just planted out a second batch of hardy annuals - a few more Cornflowers and some Ammi and Bupleurum to replace those that died off last month in mysterious circumstances. I thought I had the answer last week when I dug up a Cornflower that had been merrily flowering away but had gone yellow and floppy looking. Under the plant, I found what I initially thought to be a Vine Weevil grub, but soon realised was too big. After a lot of searching images of disgusting white grubs on the internet, I think it was actually a Swift Moth Caterpillar. These live in the soil and nibble on plant roots which may explain the Cornflower death. I didn't find any of these caterpillars when digging up other plants that had failed and they seemed to die off earlier so I think either another pest or fungal disease is probably at work there. I'm hoping that everything else will survive and we don't have too many more die-offs.

Annuals from the cutting garden
Sweet peas, Scabious, Cornflowers, Alchemilla, Gypsophila, Cosmos, Lemon balm, Lupins

Annuals

I'm currently picking Cornflowers, Sweet Peas, Lupins, Larkspur, Malope trifida, Gypsophila, Panicum grass, some lovely Nigella (Love in a Mist) and the odd early Cosmos flower.
Annuals that will take over from these as the main crops in a few weeks will be Zinnias, Scabious, Cosmos, Didiscus (Blue Lace Flower), Salvias, Coreopsis, Carnations, and Chrysanthemum 'Polar Star'.

Malope trifida 'Vulcan'
Malope trifida 'Vulcan', Pelargonium 'Lord Bute', Cornflowers, Lupins, Lemon balm

Perennials

Elsewhere in the garden borders, I am harvesting Lavender, Knautia macedonica, Verbena bonariensis, Perennial Scabious, Francoa sonchifolia, Oregano (now flowering), White and Pink Mallow, Sanguisorba, Persicaria, a few Dahlias that have just started blooming in their pots, Pelargonium 'Lord Bute', Galega officinalis and the first Fennel flowers.

Jobs to do

Aside from picking flowers (not really a chore!), I check my raised beds every day or two and spend 5-10 minutes on the following: deadheading, fishing out the odd weed, tying in new growth to supports, squashing aphids and replacing the odd plant that has reached the end of its life or has succumbed to the mystery disease with a seedling from the potting shed. I also try to give the raised beds a really good watering once a week and have fed the Sweet Peas and Dahlias with flower food every few weeks.

Raised Bed
Hardy annuals in my raised cutting bed. Amberboa, Malope, Cornflowers, Lupins, Larkspur and Cornflowers

What's next?

Well, I'll just keep picking my flowers from the raised beds and perennial borders and will look forward to the later flowering plants coming into bloom. I'll clear away spent plants when they cease to flower and put them on the compost heap. I'll keep on top of the jobs listed above - a little time spent every few days will do the trick.

I'll report back on progress after the summer - hope to see you then. In the meantime, I'll still share my cut flower pictures on Facebook and Twitter and have also been working on producing some Cut Flower Guides detailing everything you need to know about growing, cutting and arranging individual flowers such as Sweet Peas and Cornflowers.

Flowers from the cutting garden in July
July cut flowers - Cosmos, Larkspur, Cornflower, Sanguisorba, Galega officinalis, Mallow, Amberboa and Gypsophila
Share

We're approaching the end of June and we've had some pretty cold weather for what is supposed to be Summer. Yesterday and today have been lovely however, so could we please have Summer now?

Hardy annuals
My hardy annuals are now nearly all in flower and I'm really pleased with the varieties that I've chosen to grow this year. New for me this year are Amberboa muricata 'Sweet Sultan' with pale pink shaggy cornflower type flowers, the tiny white annual Lupin 'Snow Pixie' with delicate white spires of flowers on short stems and the amazing Malope trifida 'Vulcan' which has large magenta trumpet flowers with lime-green centres.

My blue and dark red Cornflowers are producing masses of flowers. They are so easy to grow and reliable and really do keep on flowering for a couple of months the more you pick them. My Larkspur are looking really healthy and are in bud but not flowering quite yet.

Cutting garden flowers in June
Sweet peas, Amberboa, Lupins, Cornflowers, Scabious, Nigella and Lemon Balm foliage

Sweet Peas
My Sweet Peas are looking really lush climbing up a frame of birch branches and I love the rich colours of the flowers. I've grown 'King Size Navy Blue' (a very dark purple - I'm not sure why seed producers are obsessed with producing blue varieties of flowers which are always, always not blue at all!), 'Matucana' which are bi-coloured - crimson and violet and 'Wiltshire Ripple' which are frilled, white flowers, splashed and streaked with deep claret. All three varieties have a lovely fragrance. Sweet peas have one of the very best scents of any flower. Yesterday, I took a sneaky day off and visited the gardens at Helmingham Hall in Suffolk and walked through a lovely rusted metal pergola swathed in gorgeous sweet peas which smelt heavenly. I don't have space for more than 3-4 varieties but it is fun to grow something different each year.

Sweet peas
Sweet peas - Matucana, King Size Navy Blue and Wiltshire Ripple varieties

Unfortunately, I've also suffered some losses in my cutting beds. Virtually all of my Bupleurum, Ammi majus and Orlaya grandiflora plants, which started  with healthy growth have slowly, one by one, turned brown and have died off. I'm not sure what has happened to them but it may be the unseasonably cold weather or some kind of pest or disease in the soil. All my other annuals in the same beds are flourishing so it's very strange and not something I've encountered before. I have sown some more of each type, which may still have time to flower this season, so I will see if they fare any better. All of these annuals make very good fillers (serving to bulk out a display with non-showy flowers and adding a light, airy feel to a vase).

Hardy annuals
Hardy annuals bed - compare this picture with the one from last month - it's amazing how quickly they grow once they get going


Half-hardy Annuals

My half-hardy annuals,  which were planted out into two beds at the beginning of the month, are slowly increasing in size. These include Didiscus 'Blue Lace', Cosmos 'Click Cranberries' & 'Rubenza' and Zinnias 'Yoga' &'Art Deco'. I'm expecting flowers towards the middle of July (if the weather warms up!).

Tulips
The Cosmos were planted into a bed that previously housed a crop of Tulips. I left them for as long as possible for the foliage to die down but it was still pretty green when I had to take the bulbs up. It's important to let Tulip foliage die down so that all the energy goes back into the bulb for flowers the following year. This being so, I carefully lifted the bulbs with foliage still intact and placed them temporarily in some plastic window boxes with some soil and put them out of sight at the bottom of the garden. Once the foliage had died off, I took the bulbs up again and let them dry out before brushing off any soil and storing in paper bags in a dark cupboard until late Autumn.

Malope trifida 'Vulcan'
Malope trifida 'Vulcan' (bottom, centre), with Lupin 'Snow Pixie', Cornflowers, Scabious, Sweet peas and Pelargonium 'Lord Bute'

Potting Shed
In the potting shed, I've sown some bi-ennial seeds for plants which I will plant out in September for flowers in early Spring next year. I've gone for the purple form of Sweet Rocket (it also comes in white) and two varieties of Sweet William - 'Single Mixed' (a mix of whites, pinks and dark red) and 'Sooty' which is a dark maroon chocolate colour. Other biennials you could sow now include Honesty and Wallflowers.

Jobs To Do
In terms of maintenance, I am tying in new growth on the tall annuals, such as Larkspur, Cosmos and the Sweet Peas, to their supports. Once a week, I give the cutting beds a really good soak with the hose. A good watering once a week is preferable to giving plants a little drink every day which only encourages shallow roots. You really want the plant roots to have to seek out the water further down the soil profile. Once the Dahlias are in flower (buds are just starting to form on my plants), I will give them a weekly feed of seaweed extract.
I haven't got a lot of weeds in the raised beds but if a stray one does appear, usually a fennel seedling that has self-seeded from elsewhere in the garden, I will pluck it out. That's it, just ensuring that flowers are picked every few days and not allowed to flower and form seed heads. Seed formation is an annual plant's whole 'raison d'etre' and once it has achieved this, there is no reason to keep producing flowers so pick them regularly and they will flower for months before exhausting themselves.

Elsewhere in the garden, I'm continuing to harvest the foliage of Lemon balm and Oregano and cutting flowers of perennial Scabious, Roses, Heuchera and Astrantia. Flowers have just started coming out on my perennial Knautia macedonica which will keep flowering the more it is cut for the next few months.

Share