Winter is approaching - we've had the first frosts which have blackened the Dahlia foliage and killed off the half-hardy Zinnias. My Cosmos seem to have escaped this fate owing to their height (over 6 ft this year!) and are still in full flower.

Comos 'Dazzler' in late October
Comos 'Dazzler' in late October with double rainbow

Once dahlias have been blackened by frost, it's time to cut them down and either dig them up for storage inside over the winter or to apply a thick mulch to protect them. Annuals which have given up the ghost should be removed and composted and empty beds given a covering of organic matter - compost or manure. It can be left on the soil surface for the worms to drag down and enrich the soil over the winter. Where I have planted out biennials, I just mulch around them.

November flowers
Cosmos, '10 Week' Stocks, Chrysanthemums, Rosemary & Sedum in a jam-jar arrangement made by a student attending a workshop in November.

As an avid watcher of predicted overnight temperatures, I dug up my frost-tender Chrysanthemums before any danger of frost. Late-flowering Chrysanthemums like the elegant 'Avignon Pink' don't start flowering until the end of October and will flower up until Christmas. You can either grow them in pots which can be brought in under cover or plant out over the summer and then carefully dig them up with an intact root ball and place them in large pots in a greenhouse/conservatory or potting shed. I find them really useful additions to fresh Christmas wreaths as they are very long-lasting flowers once cut.

Chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemums snug and warm in my tiny potting shed.

I sowed some hardy '10 week' Stocks and Chinese Forget-me-nots late in June and these are still full of flower, so along with some Borage and Feverfew still in flower, a suprisingly summery jug of flowers can be picked even in November.

Chrysanthemums in November
Chrysanthemums 'Avignon Pink', 'Tarantula Red' and 'Pandion Bronze' with Rosemary and Viburnum tinus.

Viburnum tinus is a shrub that is overlooked for a lot of the year but come October/November it is flooded in fragrant white flowers. These are invaluable just when the herbs that I use for foliage/filler material in a vase (like Borage, Mint and Feverfew) are coming to an end. The baton is handed to this evergreen shrub for most of my winter flower displays and trimmings look good in a fresh Christmas wreath.

Fresh Christmas Wreath
Fresh Christmas Wreath with Chrysanthemums
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I love May as it is the month that a lot of garden perennials such as Aquilegias and Oxeye daisies begin to bloom and there is suddenly a lot more material to cut. However, June is the month when the hardy annual flower seedlings - Cornflowers, Sweet peas and Ammi, which were sown back in March and have been cosseted since then, finally all start to flower. These annuals really do flower their socks off for months if you keep picking the flowers or dead-heading any that you leave on for the bees and other pollinating insects.

May cut flowers
May perennials

I vary the annuals that I grow each year, as I like to try new varieties, and there will always be some new amazing flower that I will see when browsing the seed catalogues  which I simply must have! This year I'm growing Phacelia campanularia (with bright blue flowers), Cornflowers 'Polka Dot' (a mix of blues, whites and pinks) and 'Black Ball' (dark, wine red),  Godetia 'Crown Double Mix' (pink tissue-like flowers), Ammi majus 'African Queen' (the classic white umbellifer which makes excellent filler material), Candytuft 'White Pinnacle' (with sweet scented, white flowers), Amberboa muricata (a pale pink, shaggy thistle type flower) and Malope trifida 'Vulcan' (a trailing plant with magenta flowers with a green eye).

 

All these annual flowers will be featuring in arrangements this month which I will post on my Facebook page in order to demonstrate the wide variety of cut flowers that anyone could grow in their own back garden, in combination with garden perennials, shrubs, bulbs and herbs. Herbs like Mint, Lemon balm and Oregano all provide useful foliage or filler flowers this month to mix in with your annuals.

Flowers end June
Sweet peas, Amberboa, Lupins and Cornflowers with Lemon balm foliage in June

 

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According to the Meteorological calendar, March 1st is the official start of Spring and that is good enough for me to shrug off Winter (though maybe not my layers of jumpers just yet) and embrace the new growing season. March sees the start of annual seed-sowing and every windowsill in the house will groan under the weight of seed trays and pots. I have a potting shed but it's unheated so I like to start my annuals off inside and then move them out to the potting shed (and eventually the cutting beds) when the weather heats up. This will free up space on the windowsill for a 2nd batch of seedlings.

Erysimum and Alliums
Perennial Wallflowers (Erysimum 'Bowles Mauve') and Alliums.

It's not all about annuals though - perennials, shrubs, grasses, herbs and bulbs all have a role to play too. Now is a good time to make plans for introducing new plants into your garden that look good but can also be cut and brought into the house.

Annual flower seed

Seeds are relatively cheap and although seed has to be sown each year, you can allow some flowers to go to seed at the end of the season and store seed to sow the next year, cutting down on your annual seed bill. I love trying new varieties so will always buy new seed each year but I have some stalwarts that I love and will always grow like Cornflower 'Black Ball' & Ammi majus, and I will save the seed from these.

Annuals are good for dedicated cutting beds, growing in pots and for plugging any gaps in mixed borders. Choose a range of flower shapes and colours and use early flowering hardy annuals (like Cornflowers, Scabious & Candytuft) and later flowering half-hardy annuals (Cosmos, Zinnias and Sunflowers) to prolong flowering time. Sowing in small batches throughout the Spring means that you can replace spent plants with new seedlings to continue the succession of flowers. In this way, you can have flowers from annual seed for a good 6 months from say June-October.

Seedlings in potting shed
Seedlings in potting shed

Perennials

Most gardens have a mix of perennials and shrubs in the garden borders. When thinking about good perennials to grow, go for those that offer a long season of picking. Knautia macedonica, for example, thrives if you keep picking the flowers, producing lots to pick and lots to leave on the plant to look good in the borders. Other good 'cut and come again' perennials include Salvias, Japanese Anemones and Cirsium rivulare. Try to include a range of flowering times from Aquilegia and Delphiniums in early Summer to Sedums, Heleniums and Verbena bonariensis, which flower into Autumn, followed by Hellebores which provide welcome Winter flowers.

Hellebores and Spring flowers
Hellebores flower in Winter and early Spring

Bulbs

Bulbs are essential for the cut flower garden as they can be packed into borders and many start flowering in late winter or early spring. Extend the picking season by planting early-, mid- and late-flowering cultivars of bubs. For example, with Daffodils, 'February Gold' reliably flowers in March, while 'Pheasant's Eye' flowers from mid-April and with Tulip varieties, you can choose different varieties that will keep you in flowers from April through to June. Bulbs can be forced by an initial period in cool and dark conditions before being brought indoors to flower from mid-Winter. I like to treat Iris reticulata and Hyacinths in this way.

Iris reticulata
Iris reticulata 'Harmony'

Shrubs

Evergreens and early-flowering shrubs such as Japanese quince (Chaenomeles), Witch hazel (Hamamelis), Viburnum tinus, V. bodnantense and Daphne odora can provide invaluable cutting material in Winter and early Spring. Consider planting a mixed hedge in place of a fence to increase opportunities for cutting.

Climbers

Climbers not only provide flowers but some, like Clematis, bear attractive seed heads as well and they can be trained up trees or along walls and fences, taking up vertical space rather than a lot of space in your beds. I have a climbing Rose which flowers on and off over a long period in Summer and into Autumn - I was still picking the flowers into November last year.

Clematis and Hawthorn with Chives
Clematis, Hawthorn, Chive flowers, Aquilegia, Red Campion and Ceanothus - a mix of climbers, hedging, and perennials.

Planting plans

It's useful to roughly sketch out your garden, including all available planting space, and noting which plants you will keep which are either useful for cutting or will look good in the garden, or both. You'll then be able to see where you have space to introduce new plants. Using information on eventual height and spread of plants and flowering times, plan where best to place plants. A tool such as the Plant Finder on the Shoot Gardening website can be invaluable when choosing plants as it shows the eventual sizes, season of interest, growing conditions and even monthly care tips if you register for a free trial or subscription.

Mixed perennial border
Mixed perennial border designed by Miles Garden Design

If you need further help when planning your permanent planting, many garden designers offer a planting plan service to plan your beds and borders.  Tailored to your individual garden and likes and dislikes, you'll be able to achieve the perfect border for year-round interest both in the garden and in the vase.

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