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I love growing herbs to use in flower arrangements as they add lovely scents and textural interest from both their foliage and flowers. In addition, you can use them in your cooking, to make herbal teas and tisanes or even your own herbal remedies. If you are establishing a cutting garden at home, space is often limited so growing plants that have another use is a great bonus. Herbs are often important food sources for wildlife attracting bees, butterflies and hoverflies - yet another good reason for growing them. Herbs really benefit from having their foliage cut and will produce new foliage all through the Summer.

Borage from the cutting garden
Borage

Herbs can be annual or perennial. Perennials include Lavender, Rosemary, Thyme, Oregano, Lemon balm, Mint, Chives, Fennel, Lovage and Sage. Annuals you can grow from seed include Coriander, Dill and Parsley - herbs that you don't usually see in flower as they are cut before this occurs. All three produce lovely delicate umbels of flowers that add lightness and frothiness to a display. This year we've grown some annual Borage for the first time and it is flowering its socks off at the moment. It has stunning blue flowers with a cucumber like taste that can be scattered in salads. I love the furriness of the stems and flower buds. The furry buds add a hazy softness to an arrangement.

Herbs in flower arrangments
Borage, Campion, Strawberry flowers, Buttercups, Daisies, Cow Parsley and Persicaria

I grow Fennel, both the green and bronze varieties, in my garden borders. They are useful perennials for adding height to the border and are loved by hoverflies - they will be swarming with them in the summer. It is a great filler for flower arrangements and I find it's an excellent alternative to Euphorbias for adding a zingy greeny-yellow touch, which is such an excellent foil for other flower colours. We leave the Fennel skeletons over the winter in the garden to add interest at this time of year. They look stunning covered in frost.

Frosted fennel in the cutting garden
Fennel skeletons with winter frost

Evergreen perennial herbs such as Lavender and Rosemary provide interest in the garden year-round and are easy to look after. Spikes of Lavender flowers add height and scent to an arrangement.  Rosemary, traditionally associated with remembrance, is useful for winter greenery and for adding to Christmas wreathes. 'Miss Jessop's Upright' is a tall variety good for cutting.

My favourite herb for the cutting garden has got to be Oregano (good in pizza and pasta dishes). It is a mecca for bees, which is reason enough, but it also produces scented, pale purple flowers which have surprisingly long stems. It will flower from late June all through the Summer. I used it as a staple flower last year in my friend's wedding flowers where it featured in the bouquet and the button holes, along with the yellow Fennel flowers.

Button holes from the cutting garden
Button holes using the herbs Oregano and Fennel with Cornflowers and Box foliage

Cutting and Conditioning Herbs

Soft-stemmed herbs need a good soak overnight and some stems will benefit from searing in boiling water for 20 seconds before being left to have a good drink of water before arranging. Woody stems often need splitting an inch at the bottom to increase the surface area available for water uptake.

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Chelsea week is drawing to an end and this year at the Flower Show, 90% of the flowers in the Floral Marquee have been grown in Britain. Getting flowers with different flowering times such as Tulips, Daffodils, Sweet peas and Alliums to be in peak condition for this week is a herculean effort and you can read more in this excellent post by the Physic Blogger. Marks and Spencer gained a Gold medal for their 'Blooms of the British Isles' exhibit and are selling lovely Chelsea bouquets featuring Stocks, Alchemilla mollis and Allium 'Purple Sensation'. At a price tag of £30 though, you could use that money to buy some annual seed and grow, not just one bouquet, but 2-3 vases full of flowers each week all through the Summer.
So, why not get inspired and try your hand a growing your own British blooms this year? May is a great time to direct sow annual flowers outside and if you sow now, you could be harvesting your own flowers in 8-12 weeks. You just need some spare soil - weed-free, sheltered and in the sun. Just follow the instructions on the back of the seed packets and keep an eye out for slugs. Check out my first Cutting Diary article for more information.

Seedlings in potting shed
Seedlings in potting shed

This time last month, I had just planted out my first batch of hardy annuals in one of the 3 raised beds in my cutting garden. They're putting on growth quickly now and I'm eagerly anticipating flowers in about 3 weeks. That's Cornflowers, Amberboa muricata 'Sweet Sultan', Malope trifida 'Vulcan', Ammi majus, Bupleurum rotundifolium, Larkspur 'Stock flowered mix', Lupinus 'Snow Pixie' and Orlaya grandiflora. I am just hardening off a second sowing of Ammi and Bupleurum which I sowed due to poor germination the first time. I'll plant them at the end of this week and they'll soon catch up with the first batch.

My half-hardy annuals (Cosmos, Sunflowers, Zinnias, Carnations, Chrysanthemums and Panicum grasses) are all a good size and have been moved from the house into the potting shed so I have clear window sills for a change). I've pinched out the growing tips on the Cosmos, Sunflowers and Zinnias to prevent them getting too leggy and to produce sturdier plants. I will start hardening these off next week for planting out at the end of the month when I can be sure that all danger of a late frost is over.

Staking

Raised Cutting Bed
Raised Cutting Bed

Even though the plants in my first bed are still fairly small, I have already added individual stakes for the taller annuals - a mix of bamboo canes, birch branches and rustic metal hoops. When the plants grow taller, I will tie them in with jute twine. It is best to stake sooner rather than later as firstly you won't damage established root systems when pushing in the stakes and if you leave it too late you may find that a Summer wind can quickly snap the stems of tall plants like Cornflowers and Cosmos. The removable chicken wire mesh frame will add a small degree of support for the plants (it's at a height of about 15 cm above the soil) but it is primarily a cat deterrent.  We have our own cats and a lot of neighbourhood cats that see a raised bed and think it would make a nice toilet - sorry if this is too much information, but there's nothing worse than encountering buried treasure when you are planting your seedlings!

Dahlias

Dahlia with new growth
Dahlia with new growth

I potted up my dahlia tubers in early April, some in large terracotta pots where they will stay and a couple in large plastic pots as they will be transferred into a raised bed when space is freed up at the end of July. Some are already producing leafy growth, but I will keep them in the potting shed until all danger of frost is over, keeping them in the light and in moist compost.

One Dahlia tuber will produce lots of flowers as long as you just keep picking them. This year, I'm growing the lovely dark red, cactus flowered Dahlia 'Nuit d'ete', 'Sam Hopkins' a dark red form, 'Roxy'  with  a simple, magenta flower and 'Blue Bayou', an anemone flowered form with lavender outer petals and deep purple pin-cushion centres.

I will be planting 2 Dahlias in the raised bed that is currently home to my half-hardy annuals which will flower from June-July. In this way, this one raised bed will have housed 3 separate crops from February until October/November - first, early flowering bulbs - Daffodils & Iris reticulata, followed by my first batch of half-hardy annuals, and then the Dahlias, along with Carnations 'Giant Chabaud mixed' (a half-hardy perennial which can be treated as an annual) and Chrysanthemums 'Polar Star' - beautiful tricolour flowers with each white flower having an inner yellow halo surrounding a darker, central cushion.

Biennials

May and June are good months to sow biennials such as Sweet Williams, Sweet Rocket and Honesty. These will put on growth this year and flower early next Spring. This may all seem a bit of a faff as you have to wait for flowers, but they are all worth growing as they provide flowers early in the season before Spring sown annuals have started flowering. If you let some go up to seed, they will self-seed and you can lift the seedlings and arrange them into orderly rows where you would like them without needing to sow again. I missed the boat last year with mine so will ensure I grow a few of each in the potting shed once I have planted out all the annuals at the end of this month and there is space for some new pots.

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It's hard to narrow it down to just 10 but these are my favourite annuals to grow for cut flowers. It's important to choose a balance of colours, flower shapes and foliage when deciding which annuals to grow in your patch.

Zinnias, Sunflowers and Scabious
Zinnia 'Giant Dahlia mix', Sunflower 'Vanilla Ice', white Scabious 'Tall Double Mix', Cosmos 'Purity' & Cornflower (that's 5 of my top ten in one vase!)
  1. Ammi majus, Bishop's flower - a delicate, creamy-white umbellifer similar to Cow Parsley with attractive fern-like foliage. It's a great filler to add frothy bulk to an arrangement and to set off other flowers. Flowers from mid-Summer to mid-Autumn.
  2. Cornflowers, Centaurea cyanus - Brings a relaxed, naturalistic feel to a vase. This lovely native flower used to grow in abundance on arable land. The deep blue flowers are easy to grow and can be sown in Autumn for early flowering next Spring. As well as classic blue, I recommend 'Black Ball', a dark, red wine colour. Flowers from early Summer if sown in Spring.
  3. Scabious, Scabiosa atropurpurea - Prolific flowerers from early Summer until the Autumn frosts. The flowers are long-lasting and are a great plant to grow as they also look attractive at the bud stage and at the seed head stage. Let some flowers go to seed to take advantage of this. I grow 'Tall Double Mix' which has a mix of pinks, whites and crimsons but I also like the dark red 'Black Cat' variety and 'Ping Pong' has blue flowers and amazing sculptural seed heads.
  4. Larkspur, Consolida ajacis - Useful tall spires of flowers to add height to your vases. It's similar to a Delphinium but smaller with more delicate foliage and flowers more prolifically.  I'm growing 'Stock flowered mix' this year which has a blend of colours ranging from light pink to dark purple. Flowers in late Spring from an Autumn sowing or early Summer from a Spring sowing.
  5. Love in a Mist, Nigella damascena - A classic cottage-garden flower with lovely fennel-like foliage. It has gorgeous seed pods which can be used later in the season. I grow it scattered throughout my perennial borders where it self-seeds into any gaps. 'Miss Jekyll' is a classic blue, 'Persian Rose' is a delicate pink.

    Zinnia bud
    Zinnia bud
  6. Cosmos, Cosmos bipinnatus - Very easy to grow and produce hundreds of flowers. There are a range of pinks and crimsons to pure white forms. Flowers from mid-Summer to the first frosts. I grow 'Purity' for its simple white flower which adds elegance to a vase and, for something a little different this year, I'm trying 'Click Cranberries' which has more layers of petals with raggedy edges and a deep red colour.
  7. Euphorbia oblongata, Eggleaf spurge - like Ammi, this is invaluable to grow as a filler for your arrangements. Bright, greeny-yellow flowers offset darker flowers beautifully. As with all Euphorbias, the sap is a skin irritant so wear gloves when harvesting.
  8. Zinnias, Zinnia elegans - These natives of Mexico come in a range of rich, bright cheerful colours and will flower from late Summer to mid-Autumn. I've grown 'Giant Dahlia' mix in the past which produces a mix of colourful flowers but this year I'm trying 'Yoga' and 'Art Deco'. The lime-green 'Envy' is a little temperamental to grow and I haven't found that it has flourished as well as some of the other varieties.
  9. Sunflower, Helianthus annuus, H. debilis - Bright, cheerful flowers that are easy to grow and loved by children. Big flower heads look great on their own in a jug but they can be hard to combine with other flowers. I grow Helianthus debilis 'Vanilla Ice' (hard not to sing 'Ice, Ice baby' every time I think of this one!) which produces an abundance of smaller pale yellow flowers that combine beautifully with other blooms. Flower from Mid-Summer to Autumn.
  10. Sweet peas, Lathyrus odoratus. The individual flowers may not last long once cut but these climbing annuals produce so many flowers over a long period and have some of the best scent of any flower. They come in so many colours, you are spoilt for choice. I go for ones that smell as good as they look such as 'Matucana'. Flower from late Spring into Autumn.
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