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Winter is approaching - we've had the first frosts which have blackened the Dahlia foliage and killed off the half-hardy Zinnias. My Cosmos seem to have escaped this fate owing to their height (over 6 ft this year!) and are still in full flower.

Comos 'Dazzler' in late October
Comos 'Dazzler' in late October with double rainbow

Once dahlias have been blackened by frost, it's time to cut them down and either dig them up for storage inside over the winter or to apply a thick mulch to protect them. Annuals which have given up the ghost should be removed and composted and empty beds given a covering of organic matter - compost or manure. It can be left on the soil surface for the worms to drag down and enrich the soil over the winter. Where I have planted out biennials, I just mulch around them.

November flowers
Cosmos, '10 Week' Stocks, Chrysanthemums, Rosemary & Sedum in a jam-jar arrangement made by a student attending a workshop in November.

As an avid watcher of predicted overnight temperatures, I dug up my frost-tender Chrysanthemums before any danger of frost. Late-flowering Chrysanthemums like the elegant 'Avignon Pink' don't start flowering until the end of October and will flower up until Christmas. You can either grow them in pots which can be brought in under cover or plant out over the summer and then carefully dig them up with an intact root ball and place them in large pots in a greenhouse/conservatory or potting shed. I find them really useful additions to fresh Christmas wreaths as they are very long-lasting flowers once cut.

Chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemums snug and warm in my tiny potting shed.

I sowed some hardy '10 week' Stocks and Chinese Forget-me-nots late in June and these are still full of flower, so along with some Borage and Feverfew still in flower, a suprisingly summery jug of flowers can be picked even in November.

Chrysanthemums in November
Chrysanthemums 'Avignon Pink', 'Tarantula Red' and 'Pandion Bronze' with Rosemary and Viburnum tinus.

Viburnum tinus is a shrub that is overlooked for a lot of the year but come October/November it is flooded in fragrant white flowers. These are invaluable just when the herbs that I use for foliage/filler material in a vase (like Borage, Mint and Feverfew) are coming to an end. The baton is handed to this evergreen shrub for most of my winter flower displays and trimmings look good in a fresh Christmas wreath.

Fresh Christmas Wreath
Fresh Christmas Wreath with Chrysanthemums
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Autumn is my favourite season and although some flowers in the garden are going over (I have just dug up my exhausted Larkspur and Calendula) the half-hardy annuals like Cosmos, Zinnias and Helichrysum are producing buckets of flowers.

Dahlia
Dahlia 'Pink Silk' with Sweetpeas, Feverfew and Zinnias.

I must admit that I was heartened to hear that Monty Don's dahlias hadn't fared well this summer with very few flowers being produced. With the exception of my vigourous yellow waterlily dahlia called 'Glorie Van Heemstede' which has been in constant flower, my other dahlias have either been slow to get going or have looked on the verge of giving up. My previously reliably flowering 'Sam Hopkins' has this year so far produced a grand total of 3 flowers (and one of those was ravaged by earwigs!) The other dahlias do all look like they might be taking off now so perhaps I will be rewarded with some late flowers, providing they survive the current high winds battering the garden.

Zinnias
Zinnias

Although it is sad when an annual comes to an end, the space that is created once you have dug them up and composted them, is an opportunity to plant biennials which will establish their roots and then overwinter ready to flower early next year. I don't like to have bare ground in my cutting beds, so the early flowering annuals are replaced either by binenials such as foxgloves, wallfowers, sweet williams or sweet rocket or with some late-sown annuals which will flower from now until the first frost.

Foxglove 'Sutton's Apricot'
Biennial Foxglove 'Sutton's Apricot'

Back in June, I sowed a few pots of Chinese Forget-me-nots (Cynoglossum) and '10 week' Stocks and they are now both about to come into flower so I have some more annuals to take over the baton from the Larkspur and Calendula and to create a fresh look as we travel through Autumn into Winter.

Also just starting to bloom are a variety of Chrysanthemums  - more in the next blog post...

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It is too hot - too hot for me and too hot for many of my cut flowers.

After a late, and then unseasonably warm spring, when all the spring flowers seemed to bloom all at once in the space of 3-4 weeks, we are now, like most of Europe, experiencing the hottest and driest summer temperatures on record.

Zinnias
Zinnias enjoying the heat

I have found that everything is going up to flower quickly before it has grown very tall and, even with a good soaking with the hose-pipe once a week, my cornflowers, larkspur, calendula and sweet peas are flowering half-heartedly and looking a bit like they are ready to give up.

I can't blame them. Being naturally milk-bottle white, I find that I struggle in the heat and am far happier when temperatures are in the very low 20s.

On the plus side, annuals originating from sunnier climes are thriving - the Zinnias and Cosmos are all looking good. I had thought that my dahlias, being natives of Mexico would be enjoying a good baking but they aren't at their best and I fear that even with regular watering and feeding, they're not going to do much this year. The foliage looks suspiciously like it might have a virus so they may have to be dug up and disposed of but I am not quite ready to face that possibility just yet so they have had a stay of execution to see if they buck their ideas up.

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Ho-hum, gardening is never the same from one year to the next and you just have to live with your successes and failures. All we can do is keep watering (it's best to water well, leaving the hosepipe on the beds for about 5-10 minutes in one position before moving it on, rather than watering more often but with a small amount of water). I have got some annuals growing in the potting shed which should be able to take over when the first lot give up the ghost and there are always the Zinnias, Cosmos (including some rather lovely Chocolate Cosmos called 'Chocamocha' that I have put in as edging plants) and lots of Chrysanthemums that are just forming flower heads now. I'm trying a new one called 'Avignon Pink' which is apparantly the Chrysanthemum equivalent of Dahlia 'Cafe Au Lait'. Just as well as my D. 'Cafe Au Lait' didn't flower at all last year is sulking this year, despite having been moved to a  sunnier position.

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